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General Vocabulary and Expressions (part II)

Penalties or sentences

:

1.

to be found guilty/not guilty

– быть признанным виновным / невиновным

2.

to bring in

(syn. to give)

a verdict of guilty/not guilty

– вынести приговор: виновен / невиновен

3.

to impose punishment

– выносить наказание

4.

aggravating

(ant. extenuating)

circumstances

– отягчающие/смягчающие вину обстоятельства

5.

compensation

(syn.recompense) – компенсация, возмещение

6.

deprivation of liberty

– лишение свободы

7.

corrective labour (without imprisonment)

– исправительные работы (без тюремного заключения)

8.

sentenсe

– приговор

to pass sentence – выносить приговор

to impose a sentence on smb – выносить к-л приговор

to receive a long/short (heavy/light) sentence – получить долгосрочный/краткосрочный приговор

a jail sentence – тюремное заключение

a six-year prison sentence – тюремное заключение на срок 6 лет

to serve sentence – отбывать срок

to be under sentence of death – быть приговоренным к смертной казни

9.

to release smb on bail

– освобождать к-л под залог

10.

fine

– штраф

to receive a fine – получать штраф

11.

probation

– условное освобождение на поруки

to be / be put on probation – получить освобождение на поруки

to place an offender on probation – поместить преступника на попечительство

to grant probation – предоставлять условное освобождение на поруки

probation officer – инспектор, осуществляющий надзор за осужденным

a probationary period – испытательный срок

12.

parole

– досрочное освобождение

to release smb on parole – освобождать к-л досрочно

to be eligible for parole – быть достойным для досрочного освобождения

13.

community service

– общественно-исправительные работы

14.

confiscation of proceeds gained by a criminal

– конфискация суммы, полученной преступником

15.

forfeiture of property involved in the commission of crime

– конфискация вещей, использовавшихся при совершении преступления

16.

police cautions

– предупреждение

17.

to send smb to the penitentiary / jail

– отправлять к-л в исправительное учреждение / тюрьму

18.

imprisonment

– тюремное заключение

a term of imprisonment (syn. a penitentiary term) – срок заключения

life imprisonment – пожизненное заключение

19. capital punishment (syn. death penalty / ultimate penalty) – смертная казнь (высшая мера наказания)

Text 1.

CIVIL AND CRIMINAL PENALTIES

There are several kinds of punishment available to the courts. In civil cases, the most common punishment is a fine. For criminal offences fines are also often used when the offence is not a very serious one and when the offender has not been in trouble before. Another kind of punishment available in some countries is community service. This requires the offender to do a certain amount of unpaid work, usually for a social institution such as a hospital.

The court may order an offender to pay compensation for personal injury, loss or damage resulting from an offence. Courts may also order the confiscation of proceeds gained by a criminal from drug trafficking and other offences such as robbery, fraud, blackmail, and insider dealing in shares. In certain circumstances courts may also order forfeiture of property involved in the commission of crime.

Police cautions are used particularly for young offenders; the caution is a form of warning and no court action is taken.

For more serious crimes the usual punishment is imprisonment. Some prison sentences are suspended: the offender is not sent to prison if he keeps out of trouble for a fixed period of time, but if he does offend again both the suspended sentence and any new will be imposed. The length of sentences varies from a few days to a lifetime. However a life sentence may allow the prisoner to be released after a suitably long period if a review (parole) board agrees his detention no longer serves a purpose. In some countries, such as the Netherlands, living conditions in prison are fairly good because it is felt that deprivation of liberty is punishment in itself and should not be so harsh that it reduces the possibility of the criminal re-educating and reforming himself. In other countries, conditions are very bad.



In some countries there are such penalties as exile, restricted residence, disqualification from a specific office or activity, deprivation of military or other special rank.

In some countries there is also corporal punishment. In Malaysia, Singapore, Pakistan, Zambia, Zimbabwe, among others, courts may sentence offenders to be caned or whipped. In Saudi Arabia theft and possession of alcohol may be punished by cutting off the offender's hand or foot. The ultimate penalty is capital punishment.

Task 1.

Indicate two types of punishments available to courts and provide with examples.

Task 2.

Give the Russian equivalents to the underlined words.

Task 3.

Give the definition of each penalty in English (you may consult the English-English dictionary).

Task 4.

There are the general types of punishment in England below. Give a Russian equivalent for each of them. Which of these punishments exist in your country?

-

Prison

;

a)

Suspended sentences:

the offender does not

go to prison

unless

he or she commits another offence

;

1.

Probation:

normal life at home, but under supervison;

1.

Youth custody

in special

centers for young offenders

;

1.

Short disciplinary training in a detention centre

;

a)

Community service –

decorating old people’s houses, etc.;

1.

Compensation

: paying, or working for one’s victim;

1.

Fines

: the punishment in 80% of cases;

-

Disqualification from driving

;

Fixed penalty fines

: especially for parking offences.

Text 2.



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